February 6, 2024

Black History Month - John Horse

John Horse

1812 - 1882

  • Black Seminole leader
  • Helped renew resistance in the Second Seminole War with two dramatic escapes in 1837
  • Served as a US Army Scout in Florida; helped negotiate the surrender of more than 500 Native Americans in 1838
  • Led the largest mass slave escape in US history from Oklahoma to Mexico (1849-1850)
  • Founded free Black settlements in Oklahoma (1849) and Mexico (1851)
  • Secured the communal title for the Black Seminoles to their land grant in Mexico, where descendants still live today

Learn More!
Seminole Nation Museum